Introduction to Physical pharmacy
Matter, Properties of Matter:
State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure, sublimation critical point, Eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid. Complexes, liquid crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline, amorphous and polymorphism.
Micromeretics and Powder Rheology:
Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume, methods of determining particle size- optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation; measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods for determining surface area; permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon:
Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface.
Viscosity and Rheology:
Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; non-Newtonian systems: pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers. 1
Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability.
Classification of complexes, methods of preparation, analysis, & applications.
Kinetics and Drug Stability:
General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalytic species and other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating.
Importance of microbiology in pharmacy
Structure of bacterial cell; Classification of microbes and their taxonomy:
Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses.
Identification of Microbes:
Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc; microbial genetics and variation.
Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods:
Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation.
Different methods, validation of sterilization methods &equipments; Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino acids.
Immunology and Immunological Preparations:
Principles, antigens and heptans, immune system, cellular/humoral immunity, immunological 2
tolerance, antigen-antibody reactions and their applications. Hypersensitivity, active and passive immunization. Vaccines and sera: their preparation, standardization and storage.
Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications. Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as Activase, Humulin, Humatrope, HB etc.
Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for their standardization. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, control of different parameters. Isolation of mutants, factors influencing rate of mutation. Design of fermentation process. Isolation of fermentation products with special reference to penicillins, streptomycins, tetracyclines and vitamin B12.
Introduction to pharmaceutical jurisprudence & ethics
A brief review; Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industry - A brief review; Pharmaceutical Education
An elaborate study of the followings:
Pharmaceutical Ethics; Pharmacy Act 1948; Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945; Medicinal & Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955; Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & Rules; Drugs Price Control Order.
A brief study of the following Acts with special reference to the main provisions and the latest amendments:
Poisons Act 1919; Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954; Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975; Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960; States Shops & Establishments Act & Rules; Insecticides Act 1968; AICTE Act 1987; Factories Act 1948; Minimum Wages Act 1948; Patents Act 1970.
A brief study of the various Prescription/Non-prescription Products. Medical/Surgical accessories, diagnostic aids, appliances available in the market. 3
Introduction to dispensing and community pharmacy
Handling of prescription, source of errors in prescription, care required in dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products. General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products; Pharmaceutical calculations: Posology, calculation of doses for infants, adults and elderly patients; Enlarging and reducing recipes percentage solutions, alligation, alcohol dilution, proof spirit, isotonic solutions, displacement value etc.
Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of:
Typical prescriptions like mixtures, solutions, emulsions, creams, ointments, powders, capsules, pastes, jellies, suppositories, ophthalmic, pastilles, lozenges, pills, lotions, liniments, inhalations, paints, sprays, tablet triturates, etc.
Physical and chemical incompatibilities, inorganic incompatibilities including incompatibilities of metals and their salts, non-metals, acids, alkalis, organic incompatibilities. Purine bases, alkaloids, pyrazolone derivatives, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides, anesthetics, dyes, surface active agents, correction of incompatibilities. Therapeutic incompatibilities.
Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug store-types of drug store and design, legal requirements for establishment, maintenance and drug store-dispensing of proprietary products, maintenance of records of retail and wholesale, patient counseling, role of pharmacist in community health care and education (First aid, communicable diseases, nutrition, family planning).
Organization and Structure of hospital pharmacy:
Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy, Responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist, Pharmacy and therapeutic committee, Budget preparation and Implementation. 4
Contents, preparation and revision of hospital formulary.
Drug Store Management and Inventory Control:
Organization of drug store, Types of materials stocked, storage conditions; Purchase and Inventory Control principles, purchase procedures, Purchase order, Procurement and stocking.
Drug distribution Systems in Hospitals:
Out-patient dispensing, methods adopted; Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. Types of drug distribution systems. Charging policy, labeling; Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients; Dispensing of controlled drugs, Dispensing of ancillary supplies.
Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management:
Types of materials for sterilization, Packing of materials prior to sterilization, sterilization equipments, Supply of sterile materials.
Manufacture of Sterile and Non-sterile Products:
Policy making of manufacturable items, demand and costing, personnel requirements, manufacturing practice, Master formula Card, production control, Manufacturing records.
Drug Information Services:
Sources' of Information on drugs, disease, treatment schedules, procurement of information, Computerized services (e.g., MEDLINE), Retrieval of information, Medication error- types of medication errors, correction and reporting.
Records and Reports:
Prescription filling, drug profile, patient medication profile, cases on drug interaction and adverse reactions, idiosyncratic cases. Pharmacoeconomics: Introduction to pharmacoeconomics, different methods of pharmacoeconomics, application of pharmacoeconomics.
Definition and scope, method to conduct pharmacoepidemiological studies, advantages & disadvantages of pharmacoepidemiological studies. 5
Methods of handling radioisotopes, radioisotope committee.
Importance of unit operations in manufacturing, Stoichiometry:
Material and energy balances, molecular units, mole fraction, tie substance, gas laws, mole volume, primary and secondary quantities, equilibrium state, rate process, steady and unsteady states, dimensionless equations, dimensionless formulae, dimensionless groups, different types of graphic representation, mathematical problems.
Types of flow, Reynold's number, Viscosity, Concept of boundary layer, basic equations of fluid flow, valves, flow meters, manometers and measurement of flow and pressure.
Concept of heat flow, applications of Fourier’s law, forced and natural convection, surface coefficients, boiling liquids, condensing vapors, heat exchangers, heat interchangers, radiation, black body, Stefan Boltzmann equation, Kirchoff’s law.
Basic concept of phase equilibria, factor affecting evaporation, evaporators, film evaporators, single effect and multiple effect evaporators, Mathematical problems on evaporation.
Roult's law, phase diagrams, volatility; simple steam and flash distillations, principles of rectification, Mc-Cabe Thiele method for calculations of number of theoretical plates, Azeotropic and extractive distillation.
Moisture content and mechanism of drying, rate of drying and time of drying calculations; classification and types of dryers, dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and special drying methods. 6
Definition, objectives of size reduction, mechanisms of size reduction, factors affecting size reduction, laws governing energy and power requirements of a mills including ball mill, hammer mill, fluid energy mill. Size separation: Different techniques of size separation, sieves, sieve shakers, sedimentation tank, cyclone separators, bag fillers Etc.
Theory of mixing, solid-solid, solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing equipments.
Filtration and Centrifugation:
Theory of filtration, continuous and batch filters, filter aids, filter media, industrial filters including filter press, rotary filter, edge filter, Etc. Factors affecting filtration, filtration, optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters. Principles of centrifugation, industrial centrifugal filters, and centrifugal sedimenters.
Characteristics of crystals like-purity, size, shape, geometry, habit, forms size and factors affecting them, Solubility curves and calculation of yields. Material and heat balances around Swenson Walker Crystallizer. Supersaturation, theory and its limitations, Nucleation mechanisms, crystal growth.Study of various types of Crystallizers, tanks, agitated batch, Swenson Walker, Single vacuum, circulating magma and Krystal Crystallizer, Caking of crystals and its prevention. Numerical problems on yields;
Dehumidification and Humidity Control:
Basic concepts and definition, wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures, Hygrometric chart and measurement of humidity, application of humidity measurement in pharmacy, equipments for Dehumidification operations;
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning:
Principle and applications of refrigeration and air conditioning;
Material of Construction:
General study of composition, corrosion, resistance, Properties and applications of the materials 7
of construction with special reference to stainless steel and glass.
Material Handling Systems:
Liquid handling - Different types of pumps, Gas handling-Various types of fans, blowers and compressors, Solid handling-Bins, Bunkers, Conveyers, Air transport.
Classification, mechanism of corrosion, factors affecting, prevention and control.
Layout, utilities and services.
Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions:
Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, fire and dust hazards. Industrial dermatitis, Accident records Etc.
Automated Process Control Systems:
Process variables, temperature, pressure, flow, level and vacuum and their measurements; elements of automatic process control and introduction to automatic process control systems; elements of computer aided manufacturing (CAM). Reactors and fundamentals of reactors design for chemical reactions.
Dosages Forms, designing & evaluation
Liquid Dosages Forms:
Introduction, types of additives used in formulations, vehicles, stabilizers, preservatives, suspending agents, emulsifying agents, solubilizers, colors, flavors and others, manufacturing packaging, labeling, evaluation of clear liquids, suspensions and emulsions official in pharmacopoeia;
Semisolid Dosage Forms:
Definitions, types, mechanisms of drug penetration, factors influencing penetration, semisolid bases and their selection. General formulation of semisolids, clear gels manufacturing procedure, evaluation and packaging; 8
Ideal requirements, bases, displacement value, manufacturing procedure, packaging and evaluation;
Extraction and Galenical Products:
Principle and method of extraction, preparation of infusion, tinctures, dry and soft liquid extracts;
Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes:
Collection, processing and storage of whole human blood, concentrated human RBCs, dried human plasma, human fibrinogen, human thrombin, human normal immunoglobulin, human fibrin, foam plasma substitutes, -ideal requirements, PVP, dextran Etc. for control of blood pressure as per I.P.;
Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing' and packaging methods, pharmaceutical applications;
Requirements, formulation, methods of preparation, labeling, containers, evaluation;
Cosmeticology and Cosmetic Preparations:
Fundamentals of cosmetic science, structure and functions of skin and hair. Formulation, preparation and packaging of cosmetics for skin, hair, dentifrice and manicure preparations like nail polish, nail polish remover, Lipsticks, eye lashes, baby care products Etc.
Advantages and disadvantages of capsule dosage form, material for production of hard gelatin capsules, size of capsules, formulation, method of capsule filling, soft gelatin, capsule shell and capsule content, importance of base absorption and minimum/gm factors in soft capsules, quality control, stability testing and storage of capsule dosage forms.
Types of microcapsules, importance of microencapsulation in pharmacy, microencapsulation by 9
phase separation, coacervation, multi-orifice, spray drying, spray congealing, polymerization complex emulsion, air suspension technique, coating pan and other techniques, evaluation of micro capsules.
Advantages and disadvantages of tablets, Application of different types of tablets, Formulation of different types of tablets, granulation, technology on large-scale by various techniques, different types of tablet compression machinery and the equipments employed, evaluation of tablets.
Coating of Tablets:
Types of coating, film forming materials, formulation of coating solution, equipments for coating, coating process, evaluation of coated tablets. Stabilityk inetics and quality assurance.
Pre-formulation factors, routes of administration, water for injection, and sterile water for injection, pyrogenicity, non- aqueous vehicles, isotonicity and methods of its adjustment, Formulation details, Containers and closures and selection, labeling; Pre-filling treatment, washing of containers and closures, preparation of solution and suspensions, filling and closing of ampoules, vials, infusion fluids, lyophilization & preparation of sterile powders, equipment for large scale manufacture and evaluation of parenteral products; Aseptic Techniques-source of contamination and methods of prevention, Design of aseptic area, Laminar flow bench services and maintenance. Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals.
Definition, primary wound dressing, absorbents, surgical cotton, surgical gauzes etc., bandages, adhesive tape, protective cellulosic hemostastics, official dressings, absorbable and non- absorbable sutures, ligatures and catguts.
Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products:
Packaging components, types, specifications and methods of evaluation, stability aspects of packaging. Packaging equipments, factors influence choice of containers, legal and official requirements for containers, package testing. 10
Designing of dosage forms:
Pre-formulation studies, Study of physical properties of drug like physical form, particle size, shape, density, wetting, dielectric constant. Solubility, dissolution and organoleptic properties and their effect on formulation, stability and bioavailability. Study of chemical properties of drugs like hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, racemization, polymerization etc., and their influence on formulation and stability of products. Study of pro-drugs in solving problems related to stability, bioavailability and elegancy of formulations. Design, development and process validation methods for pharmaceutical operations involved in the production of pharmaceutical products with special reference to tablets, suspensions. Stabilization and stability testing protocol for various pharmaceutical products. ICH Guidelines for stability testing of formulations.
Performance evaluation methods:
In-vitro dissolution studies for solid dosage forms methods, interpretation of dissolution data. Bioavailability studies and bioavailability testing protocol and procedures. In vivo methods of evaluation and statistical treatment. GMP and quality assurance, Quality audit. Design, development, production and evaluation of controlled/sustained/extended release formulations.
Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics
Introduction to biopharmaceutics:
Passage of drugs across biological barrier (passive diffusion, active transport, facilitated diffusion, ion-pair formation and pinocytosis); Factors influencing absorption- biological, physico-chemical, physiological and pharmaceutical; Drug distribution in the body, plasma protein binding.
Significance of plasma drug concentration measurement. Compartment model- Definition and Scope. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption - Zero order and first order absorption rate constant using Wagner-Nelson and residual methods. Volume of distribution and distribution coefficient. Compartment kinetics- One compartment and two compartment models. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after drug administration by intravascular and oral route. Clearance concept, mechanism of renal clearance, clearance ratio, determination of renal clearance. Extraction ratio, hepatic clearance, biliary excretion, extrahepatic circulation. Non-linear pharmacokinetics with special reference to one compartment 11
model after I.V. drug administration.
Definition and scope: Dosage adjustment in patients with and without renal and hepatic failure; Design of single dose bio-equivalence study and relevant statistics; Pharmacokinetic drug interactions and their significance in combination therapy.
Bioavailability and bioequivalence:
Measures of bioavailability, Cmax, tmax, Keli and Area Under the Curve (AUC); Design of single dose bioequivalence study and relevant statistics; Review of regulatory requirements for conducting bioequivalent studies. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) of drugs.
Inorganic pharmaceutical & medicinal chemistry
Importance of inorganic compounds in pharmacy and medicine;
An outline of methods of preparation, uses, sources of impurities, tests for purity and identity, including limit tests for iron, arsenic, lead, heavy metals, chloride, sulphate and special tests if any, of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals included in Indian Pharmacopoeia:
Acidifying agents, Antacids, Protectives and Adsorbents, Cathartics;
Major Intra- and Extra-cellular Electrolytes:
Physiological ions. Electrolytes used for replacement therapy, acid-base balance and combination therapy;
Essential and Trace Elements:
Transition elements and their compounds of pharmaceutical importance, Iron and haematinics, mineral supplements; Cationic and anionic components of inorganic drugs useful for systemic effects; 12
Protectives, Astringents and Anti-infectives.
Gases and Vapors:
Oxygen, Anesthetics (inorganic) and Respiratory stimulants;
Dentifrices, Anti-caries agents; Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy;
Sclerosing agents, Expectorants, Emetics, Inorganic poisons and antidotes.
Pharmaceutical Aids Used in Pharmaceutical Industry:
Anti-oxidants, Preservatives, Filter aids, Adsorbents, Diluents, Excipients, Suspending agents, Colorants;
Acids, Bases and Buffers:
Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general, buffers in pharmaceutical systems, preparation, stability, buffered isotonic solutions, measurements of tonicity, calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity.
Nuclear reaction, radioisotopes, radiopharmaceuticals, Nomenclature, Methods of obtaining their standards and units of activity, half-life, measurement of activity, clinical applications, dosage, hazards and precautions.
Physical Chemistry and its importance in pharmacy
Importance of basic fundamentals of physical chemistry in pharmacy:
Behavior of Gases, Kinetic theory of gases, deviation from ideal behavior and explanation.
The Liquid State:
Physical properties (surface tension, parachor, viscosity, refractive index, dipole moment); 13
Ideal and real solutions, solutions of gases in liquids, colligative properties, partition coefficient, conductance and its measurement, Debye Huckel theory;
First, Second and Third laws, Zeroth law, Concept of free energy, enthalpy and entropy, absolute temperature scale;
Thermochemical equations; Phase rule; Adsorption:
Freudlich and Gibbs adsorption, isotherms, Langmuir’s theory of adsorption.
Consequences of light absorption, Jabolenski diagram, Quantum efficiency; Chemical
Zero, First and Second order reactions, complex reactions, theories of reaction kinetics, characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, acid base and enzyme catalysis;
Postulates of quantum mechanics, operators in quantum mechanics, the Schrodinger wave equation.
Organic Chemistry and its importance in pharmacy
Importance of fundamentals of organic chemistry in pharmaceutical sciences; Structure and Properties:
Atomic structure, Atomic orbitals, Molecular orbital theory, wave equation, Molecular orbitals, Bonding and Anti-bonding orbitals, Covalent bond, Hybrid orbitals, Intramolecular forces, Bond dissociation energy, Polarity of bonds, Polarity of molecules, Structure and physical properties, Intermolecular forces, Acids and bases;
Nomenclature, isomerism, stereoisomerism, conformational and configurational isomerism, 14
optical activity, specification of configuration, Reactions involving stereoisomers, chirality, conformations;
Stereoselective and stereospecific reactions; Structure, Nomenclature, Preparation and Reactions of:
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Cyclic analogs, Dienes, Benzene, Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Arenes, Alkyl halides, Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides, Amines, Phenols, Aldehydes and ketones, Carboxylic acids, Functional derivatives of' carboxylic acids, a,ß-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds, Reactive intermediates- carbocations, carbanions, carbenes and nitrenes;
Nucleophilic and Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions:
Reactivity and orientation; Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Addition Reactions; Rearrangements (Beckman, Hoffman, Benzilic acid, pinacole-pinacolone and Bayer-Villager).
Elimination reactions; Conservation of Orbital Symmetry and Rules:
Electrocyclic, Cycloaddition and Sigmatropic reactions;
Neighboring group effects; Catalysis by transition metal complexes; Heterocyclic Compounds:
Nomenclature, preparation, properties and reactions of 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7-membered heterocycles with one or two heteroatoms like 0, N, S. Chemistry of lipids, Carbohydrates and Proteins.
Biochemistry in pharmaceutical sciences:
The concept of free energy, Determination of change in free energy - from equilibrium constant and reduction potential, bioenergetics, production of ATP and its biological significance;
Nomenclature, enzyme kinetics and their mechanism of action, mechanism of inhibition, enzymes and iso-enzymes in clinical diagnosis.
Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance. Metals as cofactors and their significance; 15
Carbohydrate Metabolism: Conversion of polysaccharides to glucose-1-phosphate, Glycolysis, fermentation and their regulation, Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, Metabolism of galactose and galactosemia, Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis, and Pentose phosphate pathway;
The Citric Acid Cycle:
Significance, reactions and energetics of the cycle, Amphibolic role of the cycle, and Glyoxalic acid cycle;
Oxidation of fatty acids, ß-oxidation & energetics, biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization, biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, Control of lipid metabolism, Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes), phospholipids, and sphingolipids, Biosynthesis of eicosanoids, cholesterol, androgens, progesterone, estrogens corticosteroids and bile acids.
Redox-potential, enzymes and co-enzymes involved in oxidation reduction & its control, The respiratory chain, its role in energy capture and its control, energetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation, Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.
Metabolism of ammonia and nitrogen containing monomers:
Nitrogen balance, Biosynthesis of amino acids, Catabolism of amino acids, Conversion of amino acids to specialized products, Assimilation of ammonia, Urea cycle, metabolic disorders of urea cycle, Metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids.
Purine nucleotide inter-conversions. Pyrimidine biosynthesis and formation of deoxyribounucleotides.
Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids:
Brief introduction of genetic organization of the mammalian genome, alteration and rearrangements of genetic material, Biosynthesis of DNA and its replications. 16
Physical & chemical mutagenesis/carcinogenesis, DNA repair mechanism. Biosynthesis of RNA;
Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis:
Genetic code, Components of protein synthesis and Inhibition of protein synthesis.
Physico-chemical and stereoisomeric (Optical, geometrical) aspects of drug molecules and biological action, Bioisosterism, Drug-receptor interactions including transduction mechanisms;
Drug metabolism and Concept of Prodrugs; Principles of Drug Design (Theoretical Aspects):
Traditional analog and mechanism based approaches, QSAR approaches, Applications of quantum mechanics, Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD) and molecular modeling.
Synthetic Procedures, Mode of Action, Uses, Structure Activity Relationships including Physicochemical Properties of the Following Classes of Drugs:
Drugs acting at synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites: Cholinergics, anti-cholinergics and cholinesterase inhibitors, Adrenergic drugs, Antispasmodic and anti-ulcer drugs, Local Anesthetics, Neuromuscular blocking agents.
Antihistamines, Eicosanoids, Analgesic-antipyretics, Anti-inflammatory (non-steroidal) agents.
Steroidal nomenclature (IUPAC) and stereochemistry, Androgens and anabolic agents, Estrogens and Progestational agents, Oral contraceptives, Adrenocorticoids;
Drugs acting on the central nervous system:
General Anesthetics, Hypnotics and Sedatives, Anticonvulsants, Anti-Parkinsonian drugs, Psychopharmacological agents (Neuroleptics, Anti-depressants, Anxiolytics), Opioid analgesics, 17
Anti-tussives, CNS stimulants.
Diuretics; Cardiovascular drugs:
Anti-hypertensives, Anti-arrythmic agents, anti-anginal agents, Cardiotonics, Anti-hyperlipedemic agents, Anticoagulants and Anti-platelet drugs.
Thyroid and Anti thyroid drugs; Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents:
Chemotherapeutic Agents used in bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal, parasitic and other infections, Antibiotics: ß-Lactam, macrolides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, polypeptide antibiotics, fluoroquinolones, Anti-metabolites (including sulfonamides); Anti-neoplastic agents; Anti-viral agents (including anti–HIV); Immunosuppressives and immunostimulants; Diagnostic agents; Pharmaceutical Aids.
Introduction, types of reactions mediated by micro-organisms, design of biotransformation processes, selection of organisms, biotransformation process and its improvements with special reference to steroids.
Techniques of immobilization, factors affecting enzyme kinetics, Study of enzymes such as hyaluronidase, penicillinase, streptokinase, amylases and proteases, Immobilization of bacteria and plant cells.
Different techniques of pharmaceutical analysis, Preliminaries and definitions:
Significant figures, Rules for retaining significant digits, Types of errors, Mean deviation, Standard deviation, Statistical treatment of small data sets, Selection of sample, Precision and accuracy.
Fundamentals of volumetric analysis:
Methods of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards: 18
Acid Base Titrations:
Acid base concepts, Role of solvents, Relative strengths of acids and bases, Ionization, Law of mass action, Common ion effect, Ionic product of water, pH, Hydrolysis of salts, HendersonHasselbach equation, Buffer solutions, Neutralization curves, Acid-base indicators, Theory of indicators, Choice of indicators, Mixed indicators, Polyprotic systems, Polyamine and amino acid systems, Amino acid titrations.
Oxidation Reduction Titrations:
Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Redox reactions, Strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents, Theory of redox titrations, Redox indicators, Cell representations, Measurement of electrode potential, Oxidation-reduction curves, Iodimetry and Iodometry, Titrations involving cerric ammonium sulphate, potassium iodate, potassium bromate, potassium permanganate; titanous chloride, stannous chloride and Sodium 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol.
Precipitation reactions, Solubility product, Effect of acids, temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate, Argentometric titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate, mercuric nitrate, and barium sulphate, indicators, Methods of end point determination (GayLussac method, Mohr’s method, Volhard's method and Fajan's method).
Precipitation techniques, The colloidal state, Supersaturation, Co-precipitation, Postprecipitation, Digestion, washing of the precipitate, Filtration, Filter papers and crucibles, Ignition, Thermogravimetric curves, Specific examples like barium sulphate, aluminium as aluminium oxide, calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate, Organic precipitants.
Acidic and basic drugs, Solvents used, Indicators.
Complexing agents used as titrants, Indicators, Masking and demasking; 19
Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis:
Diazotization titrations, Kjeldahl method of nitrogen estimation, Karl-Fischer aquametry, Oxygen flask combustion method, Gasometry.
Extraction procedures including separation of drugs from excipients; Potentiometry:
Standard redox potential, Nernst equation, Half-cell potential, Standard and indicating electrodes, potentiometric titrations;
Specific and equivalent conductance, conductometric titrations.
Coulomb’s law, Coulometric titrations at fixed potential/current.
Decomposition potential, Half-wave potential, Diffision/migration/migration current, Ilkovic equation, Cathodic/anodic polarography, Dropping mercury electrode, Graphite electrode, Organic polarography.
Rotating platinum electrode, Amperometric titrations.
Theory of chromatography, plate theory, Factors affecting resolution, van Deemter equation. The following chromatographic techniques (including instrumentation) with relevant examples of Pharmacopoeial products: TLC, HPLC, GLC, HPTLC, Paper Chromatography and Column Chromatography. 20
The Theoretical Aspects, Basic Instrumentation, Elements of Interpretation of Spectra, and Applications (quantitative and qualitative) of the Following Analytical Techniques:
Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, Infrared spectrophotometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy [proton technique only], Mass Spectrometry (EI & CI only), Flame Photometry, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction Analysis, Radioimmunoassay.
GLP, ISO 9000, TQM, Quality Review and Quality documentation, Regulatory control, regulatory drug analysis, interpretation of analytical data, Validation, quality audit: quality of equipment, validation of equipment, validation of analytical procedures.
Pathophysiology of common diseases; Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptations:
Causes of Cellular injury, pathogenesis, morphology of cell injury, adaptations and cell death.
Basic Mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair:
Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation, chemical mediators of inflammation, pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, brief outline of the process of repair.
T and B cells, MHC proteins, antigen presenting cells, immune tolerance, pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, Amyloidosis.
Pathophysiology of Common Diseases:
Asthma, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, ulcerative colitis, neoplasia, psychosis, depression, mania, epilepsy, acute and chronic renal failure, hypertension, angina, congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, peptic ulcer, anemias, hepatic disorders, tuberculosis, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Wherever 21
applicable the molecular basis should be discussed.
Fundamentals of general pharmacology:
Dosage forms and routes of administration, mechanism of action, combined effect of drugs, factors modifying drug action, tolerance and dependence; Pharmacogenetics; Principles of Basic and Clinical pharmacokinetics, absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of drugs, Adverse Drug Reactions; Bioassay of Drugs and Biological Standardization; Discovery and development of new drugs, Bioavailability and bioequivalence studies;
Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System:
Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and somatic), Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Adrenergic receptor and neuron blocking agents, Ganglion stimulants and blocking agents, Neuromuscular blocking Agents, Local anesthetic
Pharmacology of Central Nervous System:
Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S., General Anesthetics, Alcohols and disulfiram, Sedatives, Hypnotics, Anti-anxiety agents and Centrally acting muscle relaxants, Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics), anti-maniacs, and hallucinogens, Antidepressants, Anti-epileptics drugs, Anti-Parkinsonian drugs, Analgesics, Antipyretics, Narcotic analgesics and antagonists, C.N.S. stimulants, Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse.
Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System:
Drugs used in the management of congestive cardiac failure, Antihypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal and Vasodilator drugs, including calcium channel blockers and beta adrenergic antagonists, Anti-arrhythmic drugs, Anti-hyperlipedemic drugs, Drugs used in the therapy of shock.
Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System:
Hematinics, Anticoagulants, Vitamin K and hemostatic agents, Fibrinolytic and anti-platelet drugs, Blood and plasma volume expanders.
Drugs acting on urinary system:
Fluid and electrolyte balance, Diuretics. 22
Histamine, Antihistaminic drugs, 5-HT- its agonists and antagonists, Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance P and other vasoactive peptides, non- steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-gout agents.
Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System:
Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators, Anti-tussives and expectorants, Respiratory stimulants.
Drugs acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract:
Antacids, Anti-secretory and Anti-ulcer drugs, Laxatives and anti-diarrhoeal drugs, Appetite Stimulants and Suppressants, Emetics and anti-emetics, Miscellaneous: Carminatives, demulcents, protectives, adsorbents, astringents, digestants, enzymes and mucolytics.
Pharmacology of Endocrine System:
Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, Thyroid hormones and anti-thyroid drugs, parathormone, calcitonin and Vitamin D, Insulin, glucagons, incretins, oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin analogs, ACTH and corticosteroids, Androgens and anabolic steroids, Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives, Drugs acting on the uterus.
General Principles of Chemotherapy, Bacterial resistance; Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, Antibiotics- Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides, Chloramphenicol,Macrolides, Tetracyclines, Quinolones, fluoroquinolones and Miscellaneous antibiotics; Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, HIV and AIDS, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, amoebiasis and other protozoal infections and Anthelmentics. Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive agents.
Principles of Toxicology:
Definition of poison, general principles of treatment of poisoning with particular reference to barbiturates, opioids, organophosphorous and atropine poisoning, Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists. 23
Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy:
Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug therapy, Drug delivery systems and their Biopharmaceutic s & Therapeutic considerations, Drugs used during infancy and in the elderly persons (Pediatrics & Geriatrics), Drugs used during pregnancy, Drug induced diseases, The basics of drug interactions, General principles of clinical toxicology, Common clinical laboratory tests and their interpretation.
Important Disorders of Organs, Systems and their Management:
Cardio-vascular disorders- Hypertension, Congestive heart failure, Angina, Acute myocardial infarction, Cardiac arrhythmias.
Epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Schizophrenia, Depression.
Peptic ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis.
Diabetes mellitus and Thyroid disorders.
Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infections, Enteric infections, Upper respiratory infections. Hematopoietic Disorders- Anemias,
Joint and Connective tissue disorders-
Rheumatic diseases, Gout and Hyperuricemia.
Acute Leukaemias, Hodgkin's disease. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Concept of Essential Drugs and Rational Drug use. 24
Sources of Drugs:
Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs;
Classification of Drugs:
Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs;
Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to:
Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Rutaceae, Umbelliferae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Graminae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae.
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and Storage of Crude Drugs:
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants, Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents, Plant hormones and their applications, Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.
Quality Control of Crude Drugs:
Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs:
Their isolation, classification and properties.
Systematic Pharmacognostic study of the followings:
Carbohydrates and derived products:
agar, guar gum acacia, Honey, Isabagol, pectin, Starch, sterculia and Tragacanth.
Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Codliver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Kokum butter, Lard, Linseed oil, Rice Bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat.
Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combinations like Colophony, podophyllum, jalap, cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of Tolu, balsam of Peru, benzoin, turmeric, ginger.
Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambier, black catechu, gall and myrobalan.
General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of volatile oils of Mentha, Coriander, Cinnamon, Cassia, Lemon peel, Orange peel, Lemon grass, Citronella, Caraway, Dill, Spearmint, Clove, Fennel, Nutmeg, Eucalyptus, Chenopodium, Cardamom, Valerian, Musk, Palmarosa, Gaultheria, Sandal wood;
Preparation of extracts, Screening of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides, flavonoids and leucoanthocyanidins, tannins and polyphenols, anthraquinones, cynogenetic glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts.
Study of fibers used in pharmacy such as cotton, silk, wool, nylon, glass-wool, polyester and asbestos.
Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs.
GLYCOSIDE CONTAINING DRUGS: 26
Liquorice, ginseng, dioscorea, sarsaparilla, and senega.
Digitalis, squill, strophanthus and thevetia,
Aloe, senna, rhubarb and cascara,
Psoralea, gentian, saffron, chirata, quassia.
ALKALOID CONTAINING DRUGS:
Tobacco, areca and lobelia.
Belladonna, hyoscyamus, datura, duboisia, coca and withania.
Quinoline and Isoquinoline:
Cinchona, ipecac, opium.
Ergot, rauwolfia, catharanthus, nux-vomica and physostigma.
Veratrum and kurchi.
Ephedra and colchicum. 27
Coffee, tea and cola. Biological sources, preparation, identification tests and uses of the following enzymes: Diastase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin.
Studies of Traditional Drugs:
Common vernacular names, botanical sources, morphology, chemical nature of chief constituents, pharmacology, categories and common uses and marketed formulations of following indigenous drugs: Amla, Kantkari, Satavari, Tylophora, Bhilawa, Kalijiri, Bach, Rasna, Punamava, Chitrack, Apamarg, Gokhru, Shankhapushpi, Brahmi, Adusa, Atjuna, Ashoka, Methi, Lahsun, Palash, Guggal, Gymnema, Shilajit, Nagarmotha and Neem. The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine.Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Arishtas, Asvas, Gutikas, Tailas, Chumas, Lehyas and Bhasmas.
General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies and Basic Metabolic Pathways/ Biogenesis:
Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance.
monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and triterpenoids.
a-carotenoids, ß-carotenes, vitamin A, Xanthophylls of medicinal importance.
Digitoxin, digoxin, hecogenin, sennosides, diosgenin and sarasapogenin.
Atropine and related compounds, Quinine, Reserpine, Morphine, Papaverine, Ephedrine, Ergot and Vinca alkaloids. 28
Lignans, quassanoids and flavonoids. Role of plant-based drugs on National economy:
A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic plants in India. Utilization and production of phyto-constituents such as quinine, calcium sennosides, podophyllotoxin, diosgenin, solasodine, and tropane alkaloids. Utilization of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference to sandalwood oil, mentha oil, lemon grass oil, vetiver oil, geranium oil and eucalyptus oil. World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference to diosgenin (disocorea), taxol (Taxussps) digitalis, tropane alkaloid containing plants, Papain, cinchona, Ipecac, Liquorice, Ginseng, Aloe, Valerian, Rauwolfia and plants containing laxatives. Plant bitters and sweeteners.
Plant Tissue Culture:
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy.
Novel medicinal agents from marine sources.
Natural allergens and photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins. Herbs as health foods. Herbal cosmetics. Standardization and quality control of herbal drugs, WHO guidelines for the standardization of herbal drugs. 29
NIPER JEE Syllabus
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) has been created as a center of excellence for higher training, research and development in pharmaceutical sciences and technology and its first institute of this kind in the country.
For general information go to niper web site http://www.niper.nic.in/
The institute offers the students various courses viz. M. Pharm, M. Tech. (Pharm), M.S. (Pharm.) and Ph.D. Programmes in various departments every year.
At present there are total eleven departments in this institute.
To live with success is to have healthier intellect. NIPER is one of the targets to achieve success. We are sure you all have a very good perception of the importance of NIPER and we are proud of being here in NIPER. We have not seen many institutes but of the much we have seen and the much we have heard, NIPER is amongst the best. We are sure most of you would be aspiring of being in NIPER. And those who are sure of their capability and competence should prove their metal here. Those who are determined find their way at their own but if footprints are there, probability of success are higher. So this is the small attempt to help those aspiring for a career in pharmaceutical research in NIPER. We have compiled sets of certain points for each subject. These are just grids for the study and are helpful for the specialization papers. You need not to be thorough of it but if not thoroughly, at least you should be aware of it. None of it should be something heard first. By the way most of these are covered in B. Pharm syllabus. For the general paper, our experience is that one should revise the GATE preparation. Most of the questions in general paper are quite easy. But be sure you are well prepared for it since this is the screening paper.
NIPER JEE 2013 Syllabus
Entrance pattern: Well entrance consists of 200 questions in 2 hours. (Please check it in Brochure). Well questions will be very easy so no need to go in depth of the topic. Basic concepts based questions are asked. M. Pharma branches and M.B.A. has a common entrance paper. So read some general knowledge aspects also…………….
This syllabus is just like GATE entrance but more specific in Basic Chemistry instead of medicinal chemistry.
Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes
Specialization subjects: What to study?
Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes
1. Jerry March
2. Morrison and Boyd (ESPECIALLY Peptide and Carbohydrate chemistry)
3. I. L. Finar Vol-I and Vol-II (Heterocyclic chemistry and organic synthesis)
Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes
1. For various therapeutic classes: Trease and Evans
2. For spectroscopy: Silverstein, Pavia, Kemp.
3. For stereochemistry: I.L. Finar vol-II
Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes Pharmamentor Classes
Pharmacology and toxicology:
1. Rang and Dale (ALL CHEMOTHERAPY CLASSES OF DRUGS. IF YOU READ THE WHOLE BOOK, then nothing else is needed)
2. F. S. K. Barar
3. Wilson and Griswold (for Mechanism)
4. Kasture (for Bioassay and Screening)
Pharmaceutics and formulation (Pharmaceuticl Technology)
1. Lachmann (ALL new and old techniques in Pharmaceutical Industry)
2. Alfred Martin (ALL physical chemistry BASICS)
3. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences
4. Notes of Gudsurkar Sir (Most important)
5. Banker series.
6. other: Bramhankar, , Liberman Series
2. Silverstein (Mass Spectroscopy)
3. William Kemp (NMR)
4. Pavia (for spectroscopy)
5. Others like Alfred Martin, Chatwal (UV), Garry Christen (Chemical Methods)
Biotechnology:, Pharmaceutical technology biotechnology
1. Vyas and Dixit
2. IP Appendices
Practice of Pharmacy:
Foye, Williams and Lemke, Medicinal chemistry, 5th/6th edition, chapter 1-6. (Computational drug design and molecular modeling)
Others: Statistics, general mathematics and aptitude questions. Use MBA entrance test books like CET or CAT in MBA. Additionally some general awareness questions.
NIPER’s thrust areas are:
SYLLABUS FOR DRUGS INSPECTOR EXAMINATION
Its a common syllabus, it may vary)
. Pharmaceuticals Ethics
. Pharmacy Act 1948
. Drugs and Cosmetics Act and rules 1940
. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance Act and Rules, 1985
. Drugs (Prices Control) Order 2013
. Medicinal and Toilet Preparation ( Excise Duties ) Act and Rules, 1955
. Patents & Designs Act, 1970
. Drugs and Magic Remedies Act and Rules 1954.
. INDA, FDA, WHO, ICH, EMEA and OECD regulatory guidelines.
. Medical termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 and Rules 1975
. Insecticides Act 1968
. Factories Act - 1948
. Minimum Wages Act - 1948
. Patents Act
. Trade and Merchandise Act
. Industrial Regulation Act (Pollution)
. Prescription/non - Prescription Products
. Medical/Surgical accessories
. Diagnostics aids, application available in the market
2. Rest of the topics Total Question : 30 Total Marks-30
. Microbiology/Basic techniques of microbiology
. Microbiology/Food microbiology
. Microbiology/general microbiology
. Pharmacology/Mechanism of action
. Pharmacology/Synergetic Effect/Synergism
. Pharmaceutical sciences/Pharmaceutics
. Pharmaceutical sciences/Biopharmaceutics
. Pharmaceutical sciences/Physical Pharmaceutics
3. General Awareness Total Question :60 Total Marks -60
This part will have question on current affairs of Local National and international importance, Indian politics, Constitution of India, issues related to agricultural commerce, health, panchayati raj, institution, urban local bodies, Socio-cultural history, ecology, environment, economic, geography of India with special reference to the state of Chhattisgarh. This segment will have questions from statistics and current general knowledge including scientific discoveries and inventions.
Syllabus for Life Sciences (XL)
Section H: Chemistry
Section I: Biochemistry
Section J: Botany
Section K: Microbiology
Section L: Zoology
Section M: Food Technology
Section H: Chemistry (Compulsory)
Atomic structure and periodicity: Planck¡¦s quantum theory, wave particle duality, uncertainty
principle, quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom; electronic configuration of atoms;
periodic table and periodic properties; ionization energy, election affinity, electronegativity,
Structure and bonding: Ionic and covalent bonding, M.O. and V.B. approaches for diatomic
molecules, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, hybridisation, resonance, dipole moment,
structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy, hydrogen bonding, van
der Waals interactions. Ionic solids, ionic radii, lattice energy (Born-Haber Cycle).
s.p. and d Block Elements: Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali and alkaline earth metals, B,
Al, Si, N, P, and S, general characteristics of 3d elements, coordination complexes: valence bond
and crystal field theory, color, geometry and magnetic properties.
Chemical Equilibria: Colligative properties of solutions, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility
product, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications in chemical
analysis, equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions,
Electrochemistry: Conductance, Kohlrausch law, Half Cell potentials, emf, Nernst equation,
galvanic cells, thermodynamic aspects and their applications.
Reaction Kinetics: Rate constant, order of reaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first
and second order kinetics, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions.
Thermodynamics: First law, reversible and irreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy,
Kirchoff¡¦s equation, heat of reaction, Hess law, heat of formation, Second law, entropy, free
energy, and work function. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, free energy
change and equilibrium constant, Troutons rule, Third law of thermodynamics.
Basis of Organic Reactions Mechanism: Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2
reactions, Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules, Addition reactions, Markonikoff rule and Kharash
effect, Diels-Alder reaction, aromatic electrophilic substitution, orientation effect as exemplified
by various functional groups. Identification of functional groups by chemical tests
Structure-Reactivity Correlations: Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, optical and
geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers, concept of aromaticity
Section I: Biochemistry
Organization of life.Importance of water. Cell structure and organelles. Structure and function of
biomolecules: Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids. Biochemical
separation techniques and characterization: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity
chromatography, electrophoresis, UV-visible, fluorescence and Mass spectrometry. Protein
structure, folding and function: Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A,
Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin. Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition,
Vitamins and Coenzymes.
Metabolism and bioenergetics. Generation and utilization of ATP. Metabolic pathways and their
regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation,
gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid metabolism. Metabolism of Nitrogen containing
compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids and nucleotides. Photosynthesis: the Calvin cycle.
Biological membranes. Transport across membranes. Signal transduction; hormones and
DNA replication, transcription and translation. Biochemical regulation of gene expression.
Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed mutagenesis and DNAmicroarray.
Immune system. Active and passive immunity. Complement system. Antibody structure,
function and diversity. Cells of the immune system: T, B and macrophages. T and B cell
activation. Major histocompatibilty complex. T cell receptor. Immunological techniques:
Immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA.
Section J: Botany
Plant Systematics: Systems of classification (non-phylogenetic vs. phylogenetic ¡V outline), plant
groups, molecular systematics.
Plant Anatomy: Plant cell structure, organization, organelles, cytoskeleton, cell wall and
membranes; anatomy of root, stem and leaves, meristems, vascular system, their ontogeny,
structure and functions, secondary growth in plants and stellar organization.
Morphogenesis & Development: Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of an angiosperm,
pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, seed formation, seed storage proteins, seed dormancy
Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation; organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis,
artificial seed, somaclonal variation, secondary metabolism in plant cell culture, embryo culture,
in vitro fertilization.
Physiology and Biochemistry: Plant water relations, transport of minerals and solutes, stress
physiology, stomatal physiology, signal transduction, N2 metabolism, photosynthesis,
photorespiration; respiration, Flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, biochemical
mechanisms involved in flowering; molecular mechanism of senencensce and aging,
biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth regulators, structure
and function of biomolecules, (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.
Genetics: Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping;
extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization, regulation of
gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations (numerical and structural),
Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification: Principles, methods ¡V selection, hybridization,
heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers, sporophytic and gametophytic self
incompability, haploidy, triploidy, somatic cell hybridization, marker-assisted selection, gene
transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, plastid transformation, transgenic plants and
their application in agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies.
Economic Botany: A general account of economically and medicinally important plantscereals,
pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes,
gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria.
Plant Pathology: Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused
by fungi, bacteria and viruses, and their control measures, mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and
resistance, molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe beneficial interactions.
Ecology and Environment: Ecosystems ¡V types, dynamics, degradation, ecological succession;
food chains and energy flow; vegetation types of the world, pollution and global warming,
speciation and extinction, conservation strategies, cryopreservation, phytoremediation.
Section K: Microbiology
Historical Perspective: Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the
field of microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in
transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases.
Methods in Microbiology: Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of sterilization;
Principles of microbial nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms;
Light-, phase contrast- and electron-microscopy.
Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity: Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification;
Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa; Viruses and their classification; Molecular
approaches to microbial taxonomy.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function: Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell
membranes, mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell
inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum,
Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Microbial Growth: Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of
exponential growth phase; Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth;
Continuous culture; Effect of environmental factors on growth.
Control of Micro-organisms: Effect of physical and chemical agents; Evaluation of
effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.
Microbial Metabolism: Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; An overview of
metabolism; Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate
pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration;
Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis;
Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids; Regulation of major metabolic
Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction: Normal microbiota; Classification of
infectious diseases; Reservoirs of infection; Nosocomial infection; Emerging infectious diseases;
Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and antibodies;
Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immune deficiency; Human diseases caused by
viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.
Chemotherapy/Antibiotics: General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics:
Classification, mode of action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs.
Microbial Genetics: Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants;
Ames test for mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction,
recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of gene expression: repression
and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli; Phage £f and its
life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Basic concept of microbial genomics.
Microbial Ecology: Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil
microorganisms associated with vascular plants.
Section L: Zoology
Animal world:Animal diversity, distribution, systematics and classification of animals,
Evolution: Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection,
Genetics: Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, mutations, cytoplasmic
inheritance, linkage and mapping of genes.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates;
replication, transcription and translation; regulation of gene expression, organization of genome,
Kreb¡¦s cycle, glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.
Cell Biology: Structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle,
cell division, chromosomes and chromatin structure. Eukaryotic gene organization and
expression (Basic principles of signal transduction).
Animal Anatomy and Physiology: Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, circulatory
system, digestive system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the
reproductive system, the skeletal system, osmoregulation.
Parasitology and Immunology: Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and
helminthic parasites, the immune response, cellular and humoral immune response, evolution of
the immune system.
Development Biology: Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis,
metamorphosis, genetic basis of development, stem cells.
Ecology: The ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity,
zoogerography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology.
Animal Behaviour: Types of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning
and memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones, evolution of
Section M: Food Technology
Food Chemistry and Nutrition: Carbohydrates: Structure and functional properties of monooligo-
polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre; Proteins:
Classification and structure of proteins in food; Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids,
Rancidity of fats, Polymerization and polymorphism; Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls,
anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin; Food flavours: Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones;
Enzymes: Specificity, Kinetics and inhibition, Coenzymes, Enzymatic and non-enzymatic
browning; Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Water soluble
and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients, Nutrition deficiency
Food Microbiology: Characteristics of microorganisms: Morphology, structure and detection of
bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells; Microbial growth in food: Intrinsic
and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution method for quantification; Food
spoilage: Contributing factors, Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products,
meat and meat products; Foodborne disease: Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium
and Aspergillus; Bacterial pathogens: Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Shigella,
Campylobacter; Fermented food: Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese, sausage, alcoholic beverage,
vinegar, sauerkraut and soya sauce.
Food Products Technology: Processing principles: Canning, chilling, freezing, dehydration,
control of water activity, CA and MA storage, fermentation, hurdle technology, addition of
preservatives and food additives, Food packaging, cleaning in place and food laws.; Grain
products processing: Milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, production of bread,
biscuits, extruded products and breakfast cereals, Solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation
of oil; Fruits, vegetables and plantation products processing: Extraction, clarification
concentration and packaging of fruit juice, Production of jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies,
and pickles, pectin from fruit waste, tea, coffee, chocolate and essential oils from spices; Milk
and milk products processing: Pasteurized and sterilized milk, cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream,
cheese and milk powder; Animal products processing: Drying and canning of fish, post mortem
changes, tenderization and freezing of meat, egg powder.
Food Engineering: Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop
relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids
¡V generalized viscosity coefficient and Reynolds number, Flow of compressible fluid, Flow
measurement, Pumps and compressors; Heat transfer: Heat transfer by conduction, convection,
radiation, boiling and condensation, Unsteady state heat transfer in simple geometry, NTUeffectiveness
relationship of co-current and counter current double pipe heat exchanger; Mass
transfer: Molecular diffusion and Fick¡¦s Law, Steady state mass transfer, Convective mass
transfer, Permeability of films and laminates; Mechanical operations: Energy requirement and
rate of operations involved in size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration,
centrifugation, settling, sieving, flow through porous bed, agitation of liquid, solid-solid mixing,
and single screw extrusion; Thermal operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations
involved in process time evaluation in batch and continuous sterilization, evaporation of liquid
foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization; Mass
transfer operations: Properties of air-water vapor mixture; Humidification and dehumidification
नई दिल्ली: राष्ट्रीय औषधि कीमत निर्धारण प्राधिकरण (एनपीपीए) ने बैक्टीरिया से जुड़े संक्रमण, कैंसर, आर्थराइटिस और अस्थमा संबंधित 54 औरMORE
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